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A.L. Abbott & Associates (PTY) Ltd Economics & politics of water resource development This report examines the history of water resources development and investment decisions for the Uda Walawe Irrigation and Resettlement Project (UWIRP), located in the southern dry zone of Sri Lanka. Research Reports       23

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A.L. Abbott & Associates (PTY) Ltd Multiple-use water services to advance the MDGs This research report is based on the ongoing work by the action-research project “Models for implementing multiple-use water supply systems for enhanced land and water productivity, rural livelihoods and gender equity.” Research Reports       23

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African Water Issues Research Unit Policy options in water-stressed states This research project investigates how certain countries have succeeded in overcoming serious water stress and studies the lessons that can be learned from their experiences. It aims to show that an effective system of thought can be constructed from the Research Reports       17

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Aguaconsult A strategy for operation and maintenance of rural water supplies, Dominican Republic The responsibility for rural water supply, operation and maintenance in the Dominican Republic is moving from the central agency to community-based water-user associations. This article describes the proposed systems and the first steps towards establishing it. Research Reports       39

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Amatola Water Economics of productive uses for water in rural areas The evidence to be presented in this report is the result of a research process undertaken by the Association for Water and Rural Development (AWARD) in 13 communities in the Bushbuckridge District (part of former Gazankulu and Lebowa homelands), Norther Research Reports       5

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Amatola Water SecureWater-Wither Poverty? Livelihoods in the DRA SecureWater research set out to examine the interpretation, application and implementation of the DRA in water supply policy and practice. Research Reports       11

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British Geological Survey The Struggle for Water:Drought, water security and rural livelihoods The overall objective of the project is to reduce the social and economic consequences of drought by providing guidance on drought vulnerability and early detection of problems and appropriate responses, particularly in relation to community water supplie Research Reports       2

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Business Partners for Development in Water and San Making Innovation work through partnerships in water and sanitation projects This study thus reviews the innovative approaches adopted by the focus projects and their achievement in comparison to the conventional services that they replaced. It examines how and why the approaches were developed, assess their potential for replica Research Reports       9

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Centre for Appropriate Technology What lies beneath: Sustainable groundwater management for communities of indigenous people. This paper examines sustainable management of groundwater resources in remote Australian Indigenous communities. It is well understood that hydrological knowledge, including a balanced water budget is essential. However, for Indigenous communities, hydrological knowledge is only one challenge to sustainable management of ground water resources. Research Reports       47

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Centre for Civil Society 'Nothing for mahala': the forced installation of p This report is dedicated to the memory of Emily Lengolo, a founding member of the Orange Farm Water Crisis Committee, who was murdered by unknown gunmen in her home on 8 February 2003. Research Reports       3

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CSIR A review of water services monitoring and evaluati A survey conducted in Eastern Cape to determine the extent to which monitoring and Evaluation of water supply and sanitation systems is taking place within the area, as well as the use of DWAF's M&E Version $. Research Reports       6

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CSIR An assessment of strategic issues in the policy fi The paper sought to present some work that is being done from a region that has has water-scarcity linitations to its future economic growth and developmental potential. The focus of the paper is on the emergence of a new set of concepts that explain powe Research Reports       7

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CSIR An assessment of strategic issues in the policy fi The paper sought to present some work that is being done from a region that has has water-scarcity linitations to its future economic growth and developmental potential. The focus of the paper is on the emergence of a new set of concepts that explain power to Research Reports       23

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CSIR Attendance of the 11th International Symposium on The paper discussed the approach followed for the establishment of the guideline. The identified regulatory contexts and the toxicity-related information requirements for each context is addressed, and the sources and resouces covered by the Act is listed Research Reports       37

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CSIR Attendance of WISA conference; with a copy of a pa The Biotoxiology Laboratory at CSIR, Pretoria provides a unique service in the field of toxicity testing using a widw variety of tests. Research Reports       9

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CSIR Cadmium in the Umtata River and the associated hea Trace levels of Cd were determined in Umtata River which may affect human health. Research Reports       6

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CSIR Development of an integrated approach using chemical, microbilogical and biotoxicological tools to establish a water quality assessment platform. The objective of the project was to establish an integrative implementation plan for the business area that woulld serve as guideline for integrated project). The report summarises the progress made during the first year of the project (planning phase). Research Reports       25

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CSIR Forest and water policies. The need to reconcile p This paper compares and contrasts some of the sciences and public perceptions of the role of forests in relation to the water environment. Research Reports       39

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CSIR Free State Water Quality Management Programme. An The report provides details of the water quality results for the year 2004 and highlights those towns which have been identified as problematic, and the progress made in addressing any identified issues of concern…. The details covered the following: drink Research Reports       29

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CSIR Free State Water Quality Management Programme. Bi The objective of the project was to assist local government to achieve effective and safe drinking-water and sanitation services delivery. Secondary objectives include growing legislative compliance and sustainability of drinking water and sanitation serv Research Reports       4

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CSIR How dangerous is the problem? - Communicating the This guideline document presents the fourth in a five-volume series aimed at addressing the question of how best South Africans can protect themselves from water-related microbial disease. It provides a framework of principles and guidelines for the commu Research Reports       3

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CSIR Municipal wastewater treatment and direct reuse in Wastewater recovery and reuse in South Africa: South Africa has a water shortage problem that can be significantly addressed through managed large-scale beneficial municipal wastewater recovery and reuse; Severe water scarcity and financial benefits are ma Research Reports       48

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CSIR People-centred approaches to water and environment This paper compares the conventional approach to sanitation which was implemented before the cholera outbreak to the accelerated approach, which evolved in the KwaZulu-Natal Province as a result of the outbreak. Research Reports       30

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CSIR Report 19C on Water and Sanitation in the former K This report investigates and monitor water quality in the reticulation network of the town. Research Reports       36

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CSIR River resources in South Africa - governance impli New South African water policy requires that rivers and other water resources be managed in a devolved fashion so that decisions around river resource allocation falls in the hands of all resource-user and interest groups in society. Research Reports       4

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CSIR Supplemental data acquisition program for Angola L The objective of water quality sampling and analysis program was to obtain a baseline against which to evaluate the expected change in water quality as a consequence of any potential salt water intrusion resulting from gredging and/or discharge as much as Research Reports       17

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CSIR Technologies for the benefit of mine water treatme This report presents the results of the neutralisation of the different acid waters using different quality limestone. Other studies discussed in this report relates to thermal studies. Research Reports       3

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CSIR The design and development of a sanitation hand wa The paper looks at hand washing behaviour in villages in two municipal areas in South Africa and shows athe technology which evolved out of the difficulties being experienced by households in the country to meet some basic hand washing requirements. Research Reports       38

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CSIR Unambiguous identification of the origin of E. col Chapter 1 of the report explains the aim of the project, namely to identify the origin and pathway of E.coli bacteria associated with the contamination of grounwater and surface water sources using the AFLP DNA fingerprinting method. The remainder of the Research Reports       6

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CSIR Understanding the sustainable management of small The report investigated a "systems thinking" approach to a better understanding of these issues and their inter-relationships in the challenging context. The emphasis of the study is mostly on sustainable management of small water treatment plants in rura Research Reports       41

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CSIR Urine Diversion in South Africa: Is this a solutio The project involves studying the social perceptions of the users of Urine Diversion Sanitation Systems in three provinces of South Africa, namely North West, KwaZulu-Natal & Northen Cape. The paper focuses on the findings of the project. Research Reports       2

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CSIR Water and health strategy. The study was underrtaken to gain a better understanding of the "health and water" concept and to expand the Water Programme's involvement in it strategically. The overall focus of the strategy is on health within the context of sustainable development. Research Reports       21

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CSIR Water and health strategy. The study was undertaken to gain a better understanding of the "health and water" concept and to expand the Water Programme's involvement in it strategically. The report includes 1) a general background on the availability of water and the impact of water Research Reports       15

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Department of Water and Sanitation AquiMon Software for groundwater management Research Reports       7

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Department of Water and Sanitation AquiMon - Software for Groundwater Management AquiMon is able to generate a number of reports designed to assist with the management of water services from groundwater schemes. Research Reports       34

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Department of Water and Sanitation ASSESSMENT OF THE REDUCTION OF CONTAMINANTS IN THE ASSESSMENT OF THE REDUCTION OF CONTAMINANTS IN THE UNSATURATED ZONE Research Reports       16

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Department of Water and Sanitation ASSESSMENT OF THE REDUCTION OF CONTAMINANTS IN THE UNSATURATED ZONE ASSESSMENT OF THE REDUCTION OF CONTAMINANTS IN THE UNSATURATED ZONE Research Reports       6

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Department of Water and Sanitation Current Use of Urine Diversion Toilets in South Af The sanitation policy of the South African government [within a context of developmental local government agenda (DLGA) and greater milieu of community participation in the implementation of adequate sanitation] stresses that sanitation is not simply a ma Research Reports       10

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Department of Water and Sanitation Current Use of Urine Diversion Toilets in South Africa The sanitation policy of the South African government [within a context of developmental local government agenda (DLGA) and greater milieu of community participation in the implementation of adequate sanitation] stresses that sanitation is not simply a matter of providing toilets, but rather an integrated approach that encompasses financial, technical, environmental, social, economic, educational, institutional and organisational frameworks considerations developed by DPLG and other sector Departments and/or partners in the local government sector. The National White Paper on Basic Household Sanitation (DWAF 2001), Water Services Framework (DWAF 2003) and National Comprehensive Sanitation strategy (forthcoming) are based on a set of principles where sanitation is about a human right and about environment and health. Following these strategies, sanitation improvement must be demand responsive and supported by an intensive Health and Hygiene Programme, community participation, integrated planning and development, co-operative governance between spheres of government whilst at the same time promoting acceleration of delivery at local government level. Research Reports       22

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Department of Water and Sanitation POLICY FOR THE APPOINTMENT OF PROFESSIONAL SERVICE PROVIDERS (PSPs) In August 1995 Interim Guidelines for the Appointment of Consultants were adopted by the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry (DWAF). The guidelines were introduced in line with constitutional and wider policy frameworks for public procurement management. The aim in developing the guidelines was to streamline the procedures to promote the development of emerging and previously marginalized consultants. By 2000, valuable experience had been gained and a regime of policies affecting public procurement had evolved, which necessitated the need to review the 1995 guidelines. Within this context, DWAF commissioned the review of its guidelines for the appointment of consultants. The process followed included rigorous policy research and review; interviews with other government departments and a wide stakeholder interest sector; internal mini-workshops to test and debate emerging guidelines; presentations to the DWAF for comments and inputs; editing and further reference to stakeholders and government departments Research Reports       11

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Department of Water and Sanitation S78 Assessment - Generic Terms of Reference: Scop The Municipal Systems Act 2000 (MSA) Section 77 requires municipalities to “review and decide on mechanisms to provide a municipal service”. Although not specifically stated in Section 77, the implications of Sections 77 through 81 are clear that only tho Research Reports       17

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Department of Water and Sanitation SPECIFICATION DWS 0510 - DRILLING AND GROUTING This specification deals with: a) The drilling of drainage, instrumentation and grout holes. b) The drilling of exploratory holes for the purpose of recovering cores. (c) The grouting of blanket, curtain and exploratory holes. (d) The grouting of exploratory holes and construction holes and other joints. Research Reports       39

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Department of Water and Sanitation SusIT Sustainability Indexing Tool Software. Research Reports       22

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Department of Water and Sanitation Sustainability Best Practices Guidelines for Rural Groundwater has historically been given limited attention, and has not been perceived as an important water resource, in South Africa. This is reflected in general statistics showing that only 13 % of the nation’s total water supply originate from ground Research Reports       28

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Department of Water and Sanitation Typical Unit Costs for Water Services Development The cost of water supply services infrastructure can vary significantly, with changing site conditions and the economic climate. Experience to date has also shown that cost estimates for water services development projects seldom use the same costing fact Research Reports       34

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Department of Water and Sanitation Water Supply Service Level One reason people do not pay for their water services is that the level of service available to them is not acceptable. Although government recognises the right of every South African to a basic supply of water, it does not believe that people should nec Research Reports       16

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Department of Water and Sanitation YARD TANK SYSTEM Since 1994 the South African government has defined the basic level of service to be the supply of 25 litres per capita per day within 200 metres walking distance. Implementation of this level of service has predominately consisted of schemes with consumer Research Reports       12

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Department of Water and Sanitation YARD TANK SYSTEM Since 1994 the South African government has defined the basic level of service to be the supply of 25 litres per capita per day within 200 metres walking distance. Implementation of this level of service has predominately consisted of schemes with consumer access from communal standpipes. However, there is growing concern over the sustainability of this level of service Research Reports       34

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Department of Water and Sanitation YARD TANKS DRAFT 4 (LATEST FINAL) The provision of a basic supply of water to all is government’s first priority. A basic amount is however not enough to really allow for economic development. For this a higher level of service is needed. Many consumers want a higher level of service and most give ease of access, that is the provision of an individual connection, the highest priority. Research Reports       49

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Department of Water and Sanitation NON-FINANCIAL INVESTIGATION BACKLOG ERADICATION NON-FINANCIAL INVESTIGATION INTO THE ERADICATION OF BACKLOGS WITH RESPECT TO ACCESS TO TAP WATER IN HOUSEHOLDS WITHIN THE 27 PRIORITY DMS BY 2019 THE PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY This PEP (Project Execution Plan) was aimed at investigating the backlog in providing the infrastructure necessary for access to water, bringing water to those who are completely unserved, and have never been served. The focus has been on the 27 rural DMs and on those with the weakest records in water services provision. Why are there still those who are unserved? Will this gap be closed in line with Government’s commitment? And if not, why not? Further to this the PEP has reviewed the nature and extent of, and reasons for, the backlog in eradication to no access – both in terms of Government’s commitment and how the backlog is defined and perceived. Measures and indicators have been examined. In addition to high level blockages a further 21 immediate blockages have been identified and are summarised below. Actions to assist in resolving these blockages are suggested and unpacked. These blockages are pertinent to all water service delivery issues, and not only the concern with no access. The PEP briefly discusses the legislative and institutional environments, takes a closer look at funding and especially the Municipal Water Infrastructure Grant (MWIG), and considers the socio-environmental-political mix in discussing water availability, sources of water and the cost of supply. Research Reports       3       2

Ecological Sanitation Research The Main Features of Ecological Sanitation The document describes the main features of ecological sanitation. Research Reports       11

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Environmental Health Project Summary Report: Combining hygiene behavior change The Initiative for Hygiene Behavior Change had three broad goals, namely, Demonstrate the impact of the hygiene behavior change activities in Hato Mayor through additional promotional activities and follow-up surveys; Institutionalize behavior change as an Research Reports       37

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Environmet Equipment PTY LTD Rota Loo Domestic: The facts This documentation discusses the Rotaloo technology. It is waterless, odourless, easy to install, easy to maintain, converts fresh waste into organic humus, approved in every state. It is one of the world’s finest composting toilets. Research Reports       4

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Global Water Partnership - Technical Advisory Comm Regulation and Private Participation in the Water The TAC has been charged with developing an analytical framework of the water sector and proposing actions that will promote sustainable water resources management. This series was created to was created to disseminate the papers written and commissioned b Research Reports       28

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Global Water Partnership - Technical Advisory Comm Regulation and Private Participation in the Water and Sanitation Sector. The TAC has been charged with developing an analytical framework of the water sector and proposing actions that will promote sustainable water resources management. This series was created to was created to disseminate the papers written and commissioned by the TAC to address the conceptual agenda. Issues and sub-issues within them, such as water for food security, privatisation, and the role of women in water management are addressed in the papers. Research Reports       27

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Green Alliance Regulating for a sustainable water sector This report outlines recommendations for reforms to the regulatory regime governing the water industry to ensure that it can contribute fully to integrated and sustainable river basin management. Research Reports       20

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Guarantee Trust Zululand cc The Enviro loo: A waterless sanitation system Dr B.E. La Trobe utilised bacterial and biological technology plus expertise gained in research and development of waste management to develop the Enviro Loo Dry Sanitation System. Widespread experience with the system in South Africa and other countries throughout the world has demonstrated that it is a cost-effective, respectable, hygienic and environmentally friendly sanitation system that satisfies the dignity of all users. Research Reports       39

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Institute of Development Studies Water Points and Water Policies: Decentralisation This paper examines the institutions governing access to borehole water in two wards in Sangwe communal area in Chiredzi District, Zimbabwe. The study examined the contrasting institutional dynamics that have evolved, particularly around borehole committee Research Reports       18

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Institute of Water and Environment, Cranfield Univ Private sector participation in low-cost water wel This report describes the activities, findings, implications, and future plans of a project, initiated by Cranfield University (Silsoe, UK). The overall aims of the project were to develop , and transfer to the private sector Cost Water Well Drilling”. Research Reports       13

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Intermediate Technology Development Group Composting toilets This technical brief describes a compost toilet that has proved to be most effective in waterlogged areas where pit-latrines and septic tanks are inappropriate. It is a simple design that does not require electricity or great investment. Built using local Research Reports       34

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Intermediate Technology Development Group Composting toilets This technical brief describes a compost toilet that has proved to be most effective in waterlogged areas where pit-latrines and septic tanks are inappropriate. It is a simple design that does not require electricity or great investment. Built using local materials, it is a selfcontained unit that produces good compost and protects the soil and water from any contamination. Research Reports       34

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International Crop Research for the Semi Arid Trop Watershed Program and People's Participation The study assessed the performance of watershed programs by employing meta analysis. Research Reports       26

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International Water Management Institute Historical Transformations of the lower Jordan This report presents a qualitative and quantitative assessment of the history of water resources mobilization and uses within the LJRB. Research Reports       20

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International Water Management Institute Water Distribution Rules and Water Distribution Pe The study explores the relationship of water distribution rules to water performance in the Tambraparani irrigation system in India. Research Reports       26

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IRC International Water and Sanitation centre Beyond Domestic. Case studies on poverty and produ This book brings together experiences in household-level productive use of water from practitioners and researchers around the world and across water’s sub-sectors. The focus of the papers in this book is on small-scale activities that exist at the inter Research Reports       7

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IRC International Water and Sanitation centre Child-Friendly Hygiene and Sanitation Facilities in Schools:Indispensable to effective hygiene education This booklet was put together with the aim to promote a creative, child-oriented linkage between hygiene promotion and the design of hygiene and sanitation facilities. Research Reports       2

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IRC International Water and Sanitation centre Hygiene promotion Hygiene promotion entails mainly changing hygiene behaviour and gaining the full benefit of water and sanitation improvements; and handwashing with soap can reduce the number of diarrhoea episodes by 35%. Research Reports       18

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IRC International Water and Sanitation centre Key Factors For Sustainable Cost Recovery in the c The report shows that there are no set formula to improve cost recovery, but rather a blend of possibilities which should be adapted to local circumstances and context. This report wishes, however, to propose that setting an appropriate strategy for cost Research Reports       51

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IRC International Water and Sanitation centre Key Factors For Sustainable Cost Recovery in the context of community managed water supply. The report shows that there are no set formula to improve cost recovery, but rather a blend of possibilities which should be adapted to local circumstances and context. This report wishes, however, to propose that setting an appropriate strategy for cost recovery can be seen in a wider perspective. Cost recovery should not only be seen as trying to apply a series of corrective measures for insufficient revenue collection, but rather that it is part of an integral approach which can be planned for right from the start. It relies on a series of mutually dependent factors, which have been grouped into two main chapters: 1. Planning for cost recovery; and 2. Putting cost recovery into practice. The objective of this report is to provide the reader with sufficient insight into the various factors affecting cost recovery, so that they can subsequently be discussed and tested within a project team and with communities. Research Reports       12

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IRC International Water and Sanitation centre Linking Water Supply and Poverty Alleviation This study shows that linking economic projects with domestic water supplies is one way to a more secure livelihood for, and better gender relations in, poor families in low rainfall areas such as Banaskhanta. Research Reports       23

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IRC International Water and Sanitation centre Sanitation policies Above all, as thisThematic Overview Paper (TOP) emphasises, no sanitation policy will be effectively implemented without the full involvement and participation of stakeholders at all levels. It focuses on policies designed and implemented to effectively cl Research Reports       26

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IRC International Water and Sanitation centre School sanitation and hygiene education. Basic principles on financing and sustainability of school hygiene, sanitation and water programmes. Research Reports       29

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National Resources Institute SWELL: Guidelines for implementing a water and livelihoods planning process. These guidelines are an output of the Water, Households and Rural Livelihoods (WHiRL) project that was funded by the UK Department for International Development (DFID) through their Knowledge and Research programme. Research Reports       23

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Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Develop Social Issues in the provision and pricing of wate This book explores the link between social issues and the provision of water supply and sanitation services in OECD countries. The main focus of the reprt is the affordability of water services, as well as the social measures currently in placed aimed at r Research Reports       40

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Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Develop Social Issues in the provision and pricing of water services. This book explores the link between social issues and the provision of water supply and sanitation services in OECD countries. The main focus of the reprt is the affordability of water services, as well as the social measures currently in placed aimed at resolving these affordability problems. The report also examine the potential role of the private sector in incorporating the social dimension into water pricing decisions, as well as issues related to making the transition towards higher levels of access to water services. Research Reports       47

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Overseas Development Institute Implementation of Water Supply & Sanitation Progra The research addresses both policy and practice issues surrounding the implementation of Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs) from a water sector perspective. Research Reports       24

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Overseas Development Institute Learning for Advocacy and Good Practice - WaterAid The aim of this report is twofold. On the one hand it documents and compares the methodology and application of Water Point Mapping as used by two different WateAid Country Programmes -Malawi and Tanzania-so as to facilitate learning across the organisat   Research Reports       0

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Overseas Development Institute Livelihoods and Gender in Sanitation, Hygiene Wate The aim of this research was to achieve strategic improvements this research was to achieve strategic improvements in sanitation amongst the urban poor through promotion of more effective gender-sensitive institutional policies and project practices. Research Reports       44

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Overseas Development Institute Returning Thirsty: Water, Livelihoods and Returnee The central argument of the study is that in order to ensure effective resettlement, exploitation of water supplies - as well as the surrounding natural environment -has to be sustainable. Research Reports       11

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Overseas Development Institute SecureWater - Whither Poverty? Livelihoods in the This study sets out to examine the interpretation, application and implementation of the DRA in water supply policy and practice. The central focus of the research is on the extent to which current interpretations of ‘demand’ are cognisant of the comple Research Reports       19

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Overseas Development Institute SecureWater Through Demand Responsive Approaches. This study attempts to understand the relationship between water and livelihoods in poor communities, and DRA in rural water supply and sanitation projects. Research Reports       28

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Overseas Development Institute The dynamics of river basin cooperation: The Okava This chapter examines the Nile and Okavango basins in a comparative manner. Central issues raised include the aspect of scale, not only in terms of actual numbers, but also in terms of political complexity. Research Reports       30

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Overseas Development Institute Water and the GATS:Mapping the Trade-Development I This study highlights that the interface between GATS/free trade principles and development This project involved analysis of the potential implications for developing countries of inclusion of water services under GATS based on detailed case studies in Research Reports       22

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Palmer Development Group Dirty Water: Estimated Deaths from Water--related This paper examines different scenarios of activities in the international water arena and provides three estimates of the overall water-related mortality likely to occur over the next two decades. Research Reports       48

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Playpumps Kids play, water pumps Installed near schools, the innovative PlayPump doubles as a water pump and as a children’s merry-go-round. As children spin, water is pumped from underground into a 2,500-liter storage tank. The stored water comes out a faucet with a simple turn of a hand Research Reports       15

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Rural Water Supply Network Promoting dreams: Setting up viable Supply Chains Summary of an appraisal and impact assessment of the Government of Vietnam-IDE Hand Pump Promotion Program, funded by ICCO. Research Reports       36

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Rural Water Supply Network Promoting dreams: Setting up viable Supply Chains for Hand Pumps in Vietnam. Summary of an appraisal and impact assessment of the Government of Vietnam-IDE Hand Pump Promotion Program, funded by ICCO. Research Reports       5

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SANDEC Training Manual for SODIS Promotion This training manual for SODIS promotion intends to give a helping hand to organizations planning to promote and disseminate Solar Water Disinfection in areas where people to not have access to safe drinking water. The training manual lists up important is Research Reports       42

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Science Direct Rural domestic water consumption behaviour: A case The aims of the study was to determine a) the relationships between water consumption and activities, b) comparing behavior of low, medium and high water consumers, and e) identification of factors affecting water consumption identification of comparing Research Reports       26

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Stockholm Environment Institute A review of sanitation regulatory frameworks for S This document is about reviewal of sanitation regulatory frameworks for Sweden, Mexico, South Africa, and Uganda Research Reports       28

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Stockholm Environment Institute E C O L O G I C A L S A N I T A T I O N Ecological Sanitation is a new approach saves water, prevent water pollution and recycle the nutrients in human excreta. These new solutions should also save money and optimise the meagre financial resources of many cities, towns and government agencies around the world. The idea of ecological sanitation was to find solutions that were ecologically sound and would improve the environment while putting up barriers to water-borne diseases. Research Reports       9

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Stockholm Environment Institute Norms and attitudes towards ecosan and other sanit This document is about norms and attitudes towards ecosan and other sanitation systems. Research Reports       17

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Stockholm Environment Institute Norms and attitudes towards ecosan and other sanitation systems This document is about norms and attitudes towards ecosan and other sanitation systems. Research Reports       3

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Stockholm Environment Institute Urine Diversion: One Step Towards Sustainable Sani This report presents the current state of the art of urine-diverting systems, with focus on Swedish experiences of urine diversion. The intention is to inspire decision- and policy-makers to consider urine diversion for sanitation interventions aimed at me Research Reports       34

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Stockholm Environment Institute Urine Diversion: One Step Towards Sustainable Sanitation This report presents the current state of the art of urine-diverting systems, with focus on Swedish experiences of urine diversion. The intention is to inspire decision- and policy-makers to consider urine diversion for sanitation interventions aimed at meeting the sanitation target of the Millennium Development Goals. Section 1 describes how urine diversion can help meet multiple Millennium Development Goals. Going to scale with urine diversion is also discussed in this section. Research Reports       43

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Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control Urine diversion - hygienic risks and microbial gui This chapter is based on the doctoral thesis published by the author in February 2001: Höglund, C. (2001). Evaluation of microbial health risks associated with the reuse of source separated human urine. PhD thesis, Department of Biotechnology, Royal Insti Research Reports       3

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Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control Urine diversion - hygienic risks and microbial guidelines for reuse. This chapter is based on the doctoral thesis published by the author in February 2001: Höglund, C. (2001). Evaluation of microbial health risks associated with the reuse of source separated human urine. PhD thesis, Department of Biotechnology, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Research Reports       42

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Swiss Resource Centre & Consultancies for Developm Peace and stability through sustainable social and This brochure highlights the historic background and the origin of the programme. Based on the experiences in two pilot communities (Tenistoye and Sevastyanovka), it shows that the concept of community participation through social mobilisation can work we Research Reports       7

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Tearfund Community Participation in urban water services This document shows how community participation is in the commercial interest of private companies involved in urban water systems in developing and transition economies. Research Reports       37

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The Mvula Trust Community-Based O&M in South Africa: Lessons from The paper begins with an overview of the evaluation findings pertaining to O&M. A section on how local communities have responded to these problems follows. The final section of the paper then explores ways in which the Trust is trying to enhance these ne Research Reports       22

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Umgeni Water An operation and maintenance report for rural water schemes. An operation and maintenance report has been developed and is being used to monitor and evaluate a number of rural water schemes in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Serves as a valuable management tool for Water Services Providers (WSPs) by providing a record, on a regular monthly basis, of both the technical and financial aspects of water schemes, and by providing a means for sound business planning. It also serves as a management information system for the Water Services Authorities (WSAs) by providing the information necessary for appropriate and timeous interventions to assist in the long-term functional and financial sustainability of schemes. Research Reports       28

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Umgeni Water Support Services Agents: Their role in achieving sustainability of Rural Water Schemes. This paper describes a modular approach to the provision of support services for rural water schemes, which have been, or are about to be, transferred to local government in its capacity as Water Services Authority. Research Reports       11

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United Nations Children's Fund A Water Handbook. This handbook is a practical guide for implementing the operational strategies outlined in the Board-approved WES Strategy Paper (UNICEF Strategies in Water and Environmental Sanitation - E/ICEF/95/17). As such, it is an important tool for field professio Research Reports       38

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United Nations Children's Fund UNICEF Strategies in Water and Environmental Sanitation. The present report details the strategies to be followed by UNICEF in assisting Governments and communities to achieve their goals in water supply and environmental sanitation, building upon the lessons learned and experiences of the past while responding to changing needs and challenges. It provides an overall framework for country programming which countries can adapt to their particular situations. Research Reports       34

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United States Agency for International Development Three Community-based Environmental Sanitation The pilot projects addressed problems of water supply, hygiene education and sanitation improvement. Research Reports       17

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Water Aid - water for life Getting to boiling point: Turning up the heat on w Financing for water and sanitation is deficient in terms of both quantity and quality. This report explains the probelsm and sets out WaterAid's key calls to action for more and better finance to reach the world's poorest people. Different approaches are n Research Reports       44

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Water Aid - water for life Getting to boiling point: Turning up the heat on water and sanitation Financing for water and sanitation is deficient in terms of both quantity and quality. This report explains the probelsm and sets out WaterAid`s key calls to action for more and better finance to reach the world`s poorest people. Different approaches are needed for each country to ensure more people gain access to these basic needs. Research Reports       35

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Water Aid - water for life Implementation of Water Supply & Sanitation Progra This working paper presents a synthesis of findings from a research project entitled ‘WatSan & PRSPs: strengthening the design, finance and delivery of water supply and sanitation programmes under PRSPs in sub-Saharan Africa’ Research Reports       3

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Water Aid - water for life Sustainable hygiene behaviour change This report summarises the findings of the WaterAid Uganda study, undertaken from 2001 to 2003, on the sustainability of hygiene behaviour changes. Research Reports       24

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Water Aid - water for life Water reforms and PSP in Dar es Salaam This paper asks how private sector involvement in supplying and improving Dar es Salaam’s water and sanitation systems might, and should, be structured; and how the rolling out could affect the urban poor, most of whom are not connected to the water delive Research Reports       13

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Water Aid - water for life Water reforms and PSP in Dar es Salaam This paper asks how private sector involvement in supplying and improving Dar es Salaam’s water and sanitation systems might, and should, be structured; and how the rolling out could affect the urban poor, most of whom are not connected to the water delivery system, and who obtain their water by various different means. Research Reports       9

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Water and Environmental Health at London and Lough Wastewater Treatment Options This Technical Brief reviews some of the options for wastewater treatment in low- and middle-income communities. It should be used as a guide to the main options available. Research Reports       10

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Water and Environmental Health at London and Lough Water and sanitationin Uganda This report was prepared for the Ministry of Water, Lands and Environment in Uganda and presented to the annual Joint Sector Review by the Minister of State in September 2003. Research Reports       20

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Water and Sanitation Program Lessons from small municipalities in Ecuador - Delegating water and sanitationservices to autonomous operators. This field note documents the experience of the Rural and Small Towns Water Supply and Sanitation Program (PRAGUAS), executed in Ecuador and financed by the World Bank. Under the PRAGUAS program, the national government offers municipalities technical assistance and financial incentives to delegate the provision of water (and sanitation) services to autonomous (public or private) operators. Research Reports       26

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Water and Sanitation Program Peru Handwashing Public Private Initiative - 2005 The main objective of this initiative was to promote and institutionalize the handwashing practice with soap among low income families, to significantly reduce children diarrhea incidence and mortality in the country. Research Reports       24

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Water and Sanitation Program Peru Handwashing Public Private Initiative - 2005 Highlights. The main objective of this initiative was to promote and institutionalize the handwashing practice with soap among low income families, to significantly reduce children diarrhea incidence and mortality in the country. Research Reports       6

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Water Research Commission An assessment of the water policy process in SA This research report provides a recording and interpretation of the policy process followed by government in developing the White Paper on a National Water Policy for South Africa between Interpretation of the policy process folowed by government in deve Research Reports       39

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Water Research Commission Comparative assessment of water quality at Durban The aim of the study is to report the outcome of beach water quality assessments according to local and international guidelines, identifying any inconsistencies. Research Reports       15

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Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council WSSCC Strategy 2006-2015 The document describe the Council’s strategy which is to focus strongly on sanitation and hygiene - the neglected and the most difficult part of MDG target #10, but also one that is strongly relevant to the MDGs for poverty eradication, reducing child mor Research Reports       32

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Water, Engineering and Development Centre Designing water supply and sanitation projects to This book has been written for policy makers and planners responsible for water supply and sanitation in rural and peri-urban areas. Potential readers include government staff at national, state and local levels, senior managers in non-government organis Research Reports       44

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Water, Engineering and Development Centre Designing water supply and sanitation projects to This document is an output from a project funded by DFID for the benefit of low-income countries. This book has been specifically written for practitioners responsible for implementing water supply and sanitation projects in rural and peri-urban areas. Research Reports       13

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World Health Organization Health aspects of plumbing. This publication describes the processes involved in the design, installation and maintenance of effective plumbing systems. It recommends a number of plumbing system design and installation specifications that have demonstrated their validity from years o Research Reports       33

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World Health Organization Linking poverty reduction and water management. This paper analyses the relationship between water management and poverty reduction. All aspects of poverty are considered: this is reflected in the analysis of water’s potential contribution to all of the MDGs, not just those that refer explicitly to wate Research Reports       24

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World Health Organization Linking poverty reduction and water management. This paper analyses the relationship between water management and poverty reduction. All aspects of poverty are considered: this is reflected in the analysis of water’s potential contribution to all of the MDGs, not just those that refer explicitly to water. The paper builds on the conceptual framework developed in earlier Poverty Environment-Partnership (PEP) papers through the analysis of the contribution of different aspects of water management to four key dimensions of poverty reduction, namely, enhanced livelihoods security; reduced health risks; reduced vulnerability and pro-poor economic growth. Research Reports       41

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World Health Organization Nutrients in Drinking Water. The scope of the review focused on the following issues:• What is the potential contribution of drinking water to total nutrition? What is the typical daily consumption of drinking water for individuals, considering climate, exercise, age etc.? Which sub Research Reports       4

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World Health Organization Nutrients in Drinking Water. The scope of the review focused on the following issues:• What is the potential contribution of drinking water to total nutrition? What is the typical daily consumption of drinking water for individuals, considering climate, exercise, age etc.? Which substances are often found in drinking water that can contribute significantly to health and well-being? Under what conditions can drinking water be a significant contribution to the total dietary intake of certain beneficial substances? What conclusions can be drawn on the relationship between calcium, magnesium, and other trace elements in water and mortality from certain types of cardiovascular disease? For which substances, if any, can a case be made for supplementation of mineral content in treated reduced mineral content drinking water from the public health perspective? What is the role of fluoride in remineralized drinking water with respect to dental enefits and dental fluorosis, and skeletal fluorosis? Research Reports       9

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World Health Organization Review of latest available evidence on risks to hu The purpose of this document is to summarize the latest available evidence on avian influenza-related risks to human health associated with water resources, water supplies and sanitation (management of human excreta). It is intended to serve as the scien Research Reports       20

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World Health Organization Review of latest available evidence on risks to human health through potential transmission of avian influenza (H5N1) through water and sewage The purpose of this document is to summarize the latest available evidence on avian influenza-related risks to human health associated with water resources, water supplies and sanitation (management of human excreta). It is intended to serve as the scientific basis to inform a more general briefing note, including questions and answers, directed at public health authorities, those involved in the management of water resources and supplies, and the general public. Research Reports       6

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World Health Organization Toxic Cyanobacteria in Water: A guide to their pub This book describes the present state of knowledge regarding the impact of cyanobacteria on health through the use of water. It considers aspects of risk management and details the information needed for protecting drinking water sources and recreational Research Reports       47

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World Health Organization Water Pollution Control - A Guide to the Use of Wa Thid document gives guidelines to the use of water quality management principles. Research Reports       33

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World Health Organization Water Quality Monitoring - A Practical Guide to th This book brings together the information necessary to design and implement a water quality monitoring programme and provides a basis for water quality assessments and studies of the impact of pollution on the natural environment. It outlines general consi Research Reports       21       1

World Health Organization Water Recreation and disease. Plausibility of ass This publication sets out to describe the more severe waterborne diseases (and their sequelae) which may be acquired while undertaking water-based recreation in marine, freshwater, hot tubs, spas and swimming pools. Research Reports       16       1

World Health Organization Water Recreation and disease. Plausibility of associated infections: Acute effects, sequelae and mortality. This publication sets out to describe the more severe waterborne diseases (and their sequelae) which may be acquired while undertaking water-based recreation in marine, freshwater, hot tubs, spas and swimming pools. Research Reports       30

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World Health Organization Water Safety Plans: Managing drinking-water qualit This document describes the water safety plan approach and further substantiation is provided in a set of companion volumes addressing source protection, treatment processes (at supply and household level), distribution of drinking-water and selection of p Research Reports       48       1

World Health Organization Water Safety Plans: Managing drinking-water quality from catchmentto consumer. This document describes the water safety plan approach and further substantiation is provided in a set of companion volumes addressing source protection, treatment processes (at supply and household level), distribution of drinking-water and selection of parameters and analytical methods. Research Reports       2

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World Health Organization Water Treatment and Pathogen Control: Process Effi This volume is intended to provide guidance on using risk assessment when selecting appropriate treatment processes, to ensure the production of high quality drinking-water. It is hoped that it will be useful to water utilities, water quality specialists a Research Reports       2

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World Health Organization Water Treatment and Pathogen Control: Process Efficiency in Achieving Safe Drinking Water. This volume is intended to provide guidance on using risk assessment when selecting appropriate treatment processes, to ensure the production of high quality drinking-water. It is hoped that it will be useful to water utilities, water quality specialists and design engineers. Research Reports       31

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World Health Organization Waterborne zoonoses: identification, causes and co This publication presents information on how zoonotic pathogens can be best managed at the source (i.e., through animal management practices, treatment of animal wastes, runoff management); through water treatment (wastewater and drinking-water); or throug Research Reports       11

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World Health Organization Waterborne zoonoses: identification, causes and control. This publication presents information on how zoonotic pathogens can be best managed at the source (i.e., through animal management practices, treatment of animal wastes, runoff management); through water treatment (wastewater and drinking-water); or through a combination of multiple barriers. Research Reports       11

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Wost Man Ecology AB Urine diverting porcelain toilets Hygiene - Comfort - Economy - Water Conservation - Recycling Research Reports       38

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